• Compared with the pain VAS scores before active (6.2 ± 1.0) and sham (6.4 ± 0.9) treatments, pain scores after treatment were reduced to 2.5 ± 0.8 and 6.3 ± 1.1, respectively.
  • 60% reduction in pain noted with TENS.
  • Active PENS treatments produced significant pain relief, increased levels of mood and physical activity, and improved quality of sleep compared with the sham treatments during the course of the 3-week treatment period.
  • Although the precise mechanism of PENS-induced analgesia is not known at this time, it appears to be related to both neural modulation and an increase in endogenous opioid-like substances (e.g., dynorphins, endorphins, enkephalins) within the central nervous system.
  • Interestingly, both Cameron et al. and Mo et al. have reported that peripheral electrical stimulation can normalize the changes in nerve conduction velocity when using an experimental diabetic rat model.
  • Walsh et al. also observed a decrease in nerve conduction latency and mechanical pain threshold when TENS was applied directly over the nerve.
  • In addition, clinical studies have suggested that the use of electrotherapy in diabetic patients produces decreases in mechanical pain threshold, a local vasodilatory effect, and enhanced wound healing.